Explanation is the text which functions to tell how or why things occur.

(a)    The purpose of the explanation of text: explaining the process,that occur in the formation or the activities associated with natural phenomena, tell the sequence of explanations, the scientific world, socio-cultural, or other purpose explained.
(b)   Structure of Text:
  • Overview (A general statement);
  • Explanation process (A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs);
  • Closing.
(c) Language Feature :
  • Focus on generic, non-human participation
  • The use of general and abstract nouns, such as the temperature.
  • The use of action verbs.
  • The use of simple present tense.
  • The use of passive voice.
  • The use of noun phrase, such as the large cloud;.
  • The use of complex sentence.
  • The use of technical language.
  • Conjunctions of time and cause.

This is the example of Explanation Text:

this picture was taken fromhttp://www.caribbeanedu.com/images/kewl/photosynthesis.gif

What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a food-making process that occurs in green plants. It is the chief function of leaves. The word photosynthesis means putting together with light. Green plants use energy from light to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugar and other chemical compounds.
How is the light used in photosynthesis? 

The light used in photosynthesis is absorbed by a green pigment called chlorophyll. Each food-making cell in a plant leaf contains chlorophyll in small bodies called chloroplasts. In chloroplast, light energy causes water drawn form the soil to split into hydrogen and oxygen. 

What are the steps of photosynthesis process? Let me tell you the process of photosynthesis, in a series of complicated steps, the hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide from the air, forming a simple sugar. Oxygen from the water molecules is given off in the process. From sugar together with nitrogen, sulphur, and phosporus from the soil-green plants can make starch, fat, protein, vitamins, and other complex compounds essential for life. Photosynthesis provides the chemical energy that is needed to produced these compounds.

Taken from The World Book Encyclopedia, 1996

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